NCI investigators are collaborating with the Universidad Catholica of Santiago Chile to collect biological specimens from a population based case-control study of lung, bladder and kidney cancers in an area of Chile with excellent historical records that date back for over 40 years. Investigators found that arsenic exposure in drinking water was associated with lung and bladder. However, for kidney cancer, risks were only increased for cancers of the ureter and renal pelvis, both of which are of the same histologic subtype as urothelial cancers (transitional cell carcinomas). Classical renal cell carcinoma consists mostly of adenocarcinomas, a completely different subtype of tumor; for this subtype, there were no increased risks observed. In addition, risks observed for bladder and lung cancer were higher when individuals were exposed in utero or during early childhood compared to adulthood. Molecular analyses will be underway as soon as DNA and RNA is extracted from case and control blood samples from exposed and unexposed subjects. Pilot testing of field samples has been successful.