In the Intramural to India project, cervical cancers and its precursors are studied among HIV-infected women/ women with AIDS in India. Traditional cytology-based screening programs for cervical cancer prevention have failed everywhere other than resource-abundant settings. In resource constrained settings, while tests such as visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) provide a suitable platform for clinical evaluation and are very cheap, they are highly rater-dependent and suffer from substantial false positivity. Carcinogenic HPV DNA detection [e.g., HPV DNA testing by Hybrid Capture-2 (hc2) assay] is less specific than cytology and cannot differentiate between the great majority of benign infections and the few persistent infections linked to cervical pre-cancer. A reliable and robust test that improves both the sensitivity and specificity of screening may provide better alternatives for HIV-infected women than conventional cytology screening or VIA. This study [funded through the NIH Office of AIDS Research (OAR) ‘Intramural-to-India’ initiative] will be conducted in collaboration with the National AIDS Research Institute (NARI), a permanent institute of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) in Pune, India. A cohort of 1000 HIV-infected women will undergo evaluation using two novel and potentially sustainable, lower-cost tests for accurate screening for cervical cancer. These tests include immunocytochemical staining using p16INK4a/Ki-67 (a biomarker correlated with the oncogenic transformation of cervical cells following persistent carcinogenic HPV infection) and testing for HPV E6/E7 mRNA (expressed during progression of a transient to a transforming HPV infection). This study involves simultaneous and independent evaluation of these novel biomarkers along with confirmation by colposcopy/histopathology for all participants.